Structure & Function of the Human Eye

The human eye is similar to the structure of a camera. All parts of the eye must function together properly to produce clear vision. The function of the eye is to convert light into an electrical signal which is then transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve. It is in the brain that this electrical signal is converted into vision. To illustrate this, we will follow the path light takes as it travels through the eye and discuss the various ocular structures encountered. Light from the outside world passes through various layers of the eye. Come with us on an “illuminating” journey along this path of light:



The first surface encountered by a ray of light is the tear film. The eye’s surface must be kept moist at all times. To achieve this, glands in and near the eyelids produce both tears and a special oil which mix together and coat the eye. This tear film coats the cornea which normally is the crystal clear window to the eye. Behind the cornea, we enter a space called the anterior chamber which is filled with fluid called the aqueous. The aqueous is normally clear like water and is responsible for maintaining the pressure of the eye.










Optic Nerve

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